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Performance and principle of optical receiver

Performance and principle of optical receiver

Performance and principle of optical receiver

In Optical fiber communication system, the task of Optical receiver is to recover the information carried by Optical carrier after Optical fiber transmission with the minimum additional noise and distortion, so the output characteristics of Optical receiver comprehensively reflect the performance of the whole Optical fiber communication system.

After transmitting the optical signal transmitted by the optical transmitter, not only the amplitude is attenuated, but also the pulse waveform is broadened. The role of the optical receiver is to detect the transmitted weak optical signal and amplify, reshape and regenerate the original transmission signal.

1. Photodetector: its main function is to use photoelectric effect to convert optical signal into electrical signal. In optical communication system, photodetector is required to have high sensitivity, fast response, low noise, low cost and high reliability. The fundamental principle of the photoelectric detection process is light absorption. The photodetector commonly used in optical communication system is PIN photodiode and avalanche diode (APD). Performance comparison of the two detectors: PIN with the same performance is cheaper than APD, and the noise of PIN is lower.

2. Optical receiving system: at the receiving end, the function of the receiving antenna is to collect and gather the light field transmitted in space to the surface of the detector.

3. Signal processing

In the space optical communication system, the signal received by the optical receiver is very weak. In addition, under the interference of high background noise field, the signal to noise ratio (SNR) S/N<1 at the receiving end will result. So the signal processing is very necessary. First, in the optical channel, the received optical signal is processed by an optical narrowband filter to suppress the interference of background stray light. The basic types of optical filters are absorption filter, interference filter, birefringence filter and new type of atomic resonance filter. Second, on the telecommunication channel, a preamplifier is used to convert the weak photoelectric current signal generated by the photodetector into a voltage signal, and then the signal is further amplified through the main amplifier. Then the signal is shaped and processed by equalization and filtering, and finally the information is recovered by clock extraction, decision circuit and decoding circuit.

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